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Back Pain Types and Symtoms

Back Pain Types and Symtoms

According to the area of pain

1.Lower Back Pain

Low back pain is relatively common in life, and almost everyone has experienced it at one time or another. Approximately 97% of low back pain is caused by mechanical problems that improve in a short period of time. According to Data Bridge Market Research analysis, the low back pain market is estimated to be $881,201,000 in 2021 and will soar to $1,342,146,000 by 2029, and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 5.40% during the forecast period of 2022 to 2029.

(1)Causes

1) Muscle strains and ligament sprains caused during heavy labor and exercise (usually do not last long and can heal themselves in a short period of time)
2) traumatic injuries caused by car accidents, falls during sports, damage to muscles or ligaments, which can lead to problems such as herniated lumbar discs and compression of the spine (may heal on their own within a certain period of time, or may last for a longer period of time)
3) congenital factors, such as the presence of spinal curvature at birth, anterior or posterior spinal convexity and other skeletal irregularities, but also congenital spinal cord hypoplasia, spina bifida and other problems, mostly occurring in childhood and adolescence.
(4) Degenerative problems, with age and wear and tear degeneration of the bones, intervertebral disc degeneration, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, spondylosis, spondylitis, osteoarthritis caused by small joint damage and other problems
(5) Nerve and spinal cord problems, osteoporosis due to age-related decrease in bone density and strength, sciatica due to sciatic nerve injury or compression, spinal nerve compression and injury, spinal stenosis, disc injury or strain (caused by strenuous exercise, heavy lifting, poor lifestyle, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, etc.) resulting in disc herniation or rupture, and some infections involving the vertebrae (such as intervertebral discitis, sacroiliac arthritis)
6) Others. Kidney stones (pain may be felt on the side of the abdomen or back), some problems affecting female reproductive organs (endometriosis: accumulation of uterine tissue in places other than the uterus, painful menstruation, pain during urination and defecation; uterine fibroids: heavy bleeding with clots during menstruation, long duration of menstruation; ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs formed on the surface or inside the ovaries, abdominal distention and swelling, painful defecation, sudden feather Severe pelvic pain with nausea and vomiting symptoms; ovarian cancer: abdominal swelling, difficulty in eating, easy satiety, frequent urination and urgency), and there are also problems associated with women during pregnancy

(2)Symtoms

1) Occult pain sensation: Pain retained in the low back (axial pain) is usually described as a vague ache, rather than a burning, stabbing, or severe pain. This pain may be accompanied by mild or severe muscle spasm, restricted movement, and hip and pelvic pain.
(2) Sciatica: caused by injury and compression of the sciatic nerve, usually on the side of the lower back, sometimes spreading from the thighs to the calves and soles of the feet
3) Pain is stronger when sitting or resting for a long time, but the pain rapidly decreases after walking: prolonged sitting will compress the intervertebral discs and aggravate the pain symptoms, and after being relieved by walking, the symptoms will appear again by continuing to sit for a long time.
4)Waking up with strong pain in the morning: the low back pain will occur at night when sleeping for a long time due to the lack of blood circulation and stiffness of the body.

(3)Types

1) Classified according to duration.
Acute pain:This type of pain is the most common. Most people suffer from acute pain. This symptom usually lasts a few days or weeks.It will gradually improve within a week, and then after 4 to 6 weeks will heal on its own,even disappear completely.
Subacute pain: This type of pain usually lasts from 6 weeks to 3 months, and a large part of it is caused by mechanical injury, and the pain lasts relatively long.
Chronic pain: This type of pain is more severe and lasts for more than 3 months. For some people, the injury has been treated at the beginning as well as acute low back pain, but in some cases it can still continue to worsen and develop into chronic low back pain and the symptoms can persist. Although the pain can be relieved by treatment, it will still persist.
2) The pain is classified according to the cause.
Mechanical pain: This is the most common cause of low back pain, 97% of low back pain is from mechanical pain. The main causes of mechanical pain are muscle strains, herniated discs, joint diseases, vertebral fractures, osteoarthritis, etc. This type of pain is concentrated in the lower back, buttocks, and sometimes spreads to the top of the leg.
Non-mechanical pain: The main causes of non-mechanical pain are pain caused by tumors and inflammation and infection. Patients with inflammatory pain are relatively rare, but once back pain occurs because of inflammation, it may last a lifetime, such as ankylosis spondylis and reactive arthritis; pain caused by infection is much rarer, and if a patient experiences a fever condition, the doctor will ask the patient if they have recently undergone surgery, dialysis, etc., to determine if they are at risk for spinal infection.
Pain caused by internal organs: This pain mainly originates from gallbladder disease, kidney stones. Kidney infections, etc.

(4)Diagnosis method

1) Physical examination: During the physical examination, the doctor will ask the patient's medical history and find out how the pain location affects the patient's movement and life.
2) X-rays: When the patient is older, has suffered a trauma, has a fever, has lost weight, and has a history of cancer, the patient will need to have an x-ray to clarify the location of the bones.
3) Magnetic resonance imaging MRI or CT scan: MRI or CT scan is needed if the patient has fractures, infections and some problems with the nervous system.
4) Electrodiagnosis: This method is used to identify the nerves in the back and legs. EMG (electromyography) can be used to detect whether the muscle weakness is due to problems with the nerves that control the muscles.

(5)What's the time to call a doctor

1) The pain has been on for more than 4 weeks. Most pain goes away within a few days or a week or two, but if your pain has been there for more than four weeks, it's time to see a doctor to figure out the source of the problem.
2) The pain has spread to the legs. If the back pain has spread to your legs, you may be suffering from sciatica, which is usually due to a herniated disc, and your doctor can help relieve the pain.
3) There is numbness, tingling and weakness. This is a condition that may be caused by neuralgia. If left untreated, it may cause permanent damage or, in more serious cases, disability.
4) Presence of unexplained fever and weight loss. This condition may be caused by an infection and requires further diagnosis by a doctor, and if it is caused by an infection, medication and rest are required.
5) Difficulty urinating or blood in the stool. This condition may be related to the nerves, and if left untreated, may cause permanent damage to the nerves.
6) Feeling more pain after the injury. This may be due to a back injury caused by a fracture and requires further examination.
7) Feeling worse at certain times. It may be due to nerve compression.

(6)Treatment method

1) Exercise therapy: Low-intensity aerobic exercise (walking, swimming, cycling, etc.) can promote blood flow to the back to accelerate healing and strengthen the back muscles. Regular physical exercise is very important to maintain a healthy spine.
2) Physical therapy: Hot or cold compresses are the simplest and most effective method. Loki promotes blood flow through, relaxes tense muscles, accelerates muscle healing and prevents muscle damage.
3)Medication: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers, and opioids can effectively relieve short-term pain symptoms, but all have side effects and cannot be used for a long time.
4) Complementary and alternative therapies: acupuncture, massage, and spinal manipulation are effective for chronic low back pain, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is placed over the painful area to relieve pain through electrical pulse induction.
5) Surgical treatment: In case of no improvement with other methods, surgery can be performed, but there are different surgical methods for different symptoms. For example, vertebroplasty and fracture kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures for vertebral fractures caused by osteoporosis; discotomy is mainly for herniated discs; PDD is a laser procedure for mild disc herniation; and interbody spacer is for patients with vertebral stenosis.

(7)Preventive measures

1) Avoid lifting too heavy objects.
2) Avoid standing or sitting for a long time. If you must stand, alternate each foot on a stool, and put a support behind the waist when sitting for a long time.
3) Improve poor lifestyle habits. Insist on quitting smoking, because smoking increases the risk of osteoporosis; when sitting, you need to change your sitting position frequently, and do some stretching if necessary.
4) Maintain a healthy weight. Do not deliberately lose weight, and eat more food containing vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus to promote bone growth.
5) Regular physical exercise. You can do some massage, yoga and other relaxation while promoting blood circulation and strengthening the back muscles.

2.Upper Back Pain

The upper back is the area of the spine located between the base of the neck and the base of the thoracic cavity. The upper back is relatively fixed compared to the cervical and lower back, the thoracic spine is relatively fixed and more resistant to pain and injury. Upper back pain is uncommon, and if present, is mostly due to poor posture or injury from overwhelming solidity of the thoracic spine.

(1)Causes

1) Incorrect posture. Incorrect sitting posture may affect the structure of the back and neck, causing some damage to the spine.
2) Injuries caused by accidents and collisions. This condition can cause injury to the spine, bones, muscles, and ligaments, resulting in upper back pain.
3) Prolonged lifting of heavy objects and carrying overweight bags. This condition may put too much pressure on the back, making it more prone to injury. It may also cause muscle strains and ligament sprains.
4) Obesity. Excess weight may increase the pressure on the spine and discs, causing upper back pain.
5) Intervertebral disc problems. With age and wear and tear of the skeletal muscles, causing degeneration of the vertebrae; herniated discs can compress the nerves, causing numbness and lack of control in the arms and legs.
6) Arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common. There is some wear and tear on the bones for protection and can also cause upper back pain.
7)Other. Abdominal with aortic aneurysm. Congenital anomalies of the spinal bones, other inflammatory diseases caused by arthritis, compression fractures due to osteoporosis, etc.

(2)Symtoms

1)Constant pain after sitting or standing for a long time.
2)Dull pain, burning pain: This pain is usually concentrated in one area and feels like a knife cut, and this pain is usually unbearable.
3)Stabbing pain, numbness and weakness: this kind of pain covers a large area. It spreads from the thoracic spine to the arm or even the lower part of the body , just like pins and needles.
4)General discomfort. This pain is usually in one area, the lower part of the neck, shoulder and back, and is usually sore or throbbing.
5) Radicular pain. This pain, like a stabbing pain, covers a larger area and travels down the cervical nerve to the lower part of the body and is usually felt on only one side of the body. This pain can range from a dull ache to sharp to electric shock-like and may last for a long time.
6) Rigidity. If the pain becomes severe, it can lead to decreased mobility of the upper back joints, which may cause arm rests to become difficult.

(3)Diagnosis method

1) History and physical examination: The doctor asks the patient's age, history of the disease, whether he/she has been injured, pain, lifestyle habits and family genetic history, and then determines the location of the onset by observing the back for abnormalities and palpating the patient.
2) X-Ray. This method is possible to determine whether there are fractures, spinal degeneration, etc. through the skeletal drawing of electromagnetic radiation resume.
3)MRI. It is possible to draw a cross-sectional image of soft tissues and bones by radio waves and strong magnets, and it is also possible to determine damage to spinal nerves, muscles, ligaments, etc.
4)Medial branch nerve block and bone mineral density examination. Both of them are realized by X-ray. The former is to find the source of pain by injecting anesthetics near the medial nerves of small joints, and the latter is mainly for osteoporosis.
5) EMG. an electrodiagnostic test mainly used to examine nerve and muscle function.
6) CT scan and myelogram. The same as MRI, but mainly for patients who are unable to undergo MRI.
7)Blood test. In some special cases, blood tests are needed to determine the presence of infections and other conditions.

(4)What's the time to call a doctor

Usually, upper back pain can be managed and relieved on its own. But when the pain is severe, you need to see a doctor. Also, you need to see a doctor when there is uncontrolled bowel movement and urination, when there is an unexplained fever, and when there is pain after exercise or a car accident.

(5)Treatment method

1) Exercise therapy: Stretching and stretching exercises, regular yoga and Pilates, walking and swimming and other aerobic exercises can improve blood flow and reduce muscle spasm and tension
2) Pain medication: Use over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen, aspirin, etc. to relieve pain and swelling.
3)Hot or cold compresses: reduce pain stiffness and swelling, pay attention to controlling the time, preferably within 20 minutes
4)Maintain a positive mindset: this is psychological therapy to help patients forget about the pain and treat it positively
5)Electrotherapy: the most common is TENS.
6)Minimally invasive treatment: radiofrequency ablation is achieved through electrical stimulation to destroy abnormal tissues; spinal cord stimulation (SCS) relieves pain through an implanted electronic device.
7) Alternative therapies: massage and chiropractic relax the muscles. Acupuncture, which involves placing needles in key areas to relieve pain according to the symptoms of different ailments; positive meditation, which is a form of psychotherapy that enhances the patient's ability to cope with pain, and
8) Surgery: Upper back pain generally does not require surgery, but surgery may be necessary when there is a severe spinal deformity, when the spinal cord or nerve roots are already at risk, and when the pain is intolerable.

(6)Preventive measures

1) Exercise regularly to stretch and stretch your muscles.
2) Avoid overburdening the shoulders and back. Lift heavy objects correctly, do not carry too heavy backpacks, etc.
3) Maintain good posture at all times. Walk upright. It is better to have support for the lumbar region when sitting.
4) Maintain good lifestyle habits. Quit smoking, maintain a healthy weight, eat more foods containing vitamin D and calcium, get enough sleep, avoid stress, and maintain a stable mood.

3.Neck Pain

Today, neck pain is very common and many people nowadays have this problem or it occurs but lasts for a short period of time, disappearing within a few days or even hours, and serious cases are rare. Many people currently sit at their desks for long periods of time in front of the computer, lie in bed playing with their phones or sleep in an incorrect position, all of which can cause damage to the muscles and thus trigger neck pain. Neck pain is usually not only in the neck, but can affect other parts of the body, with the shoulders and arms being the most common, and can even sometimes cause headaches and fainting, making it difficult to concentrate. People of all ages can suffer from neck pain, and the prevalence is slightly higher in women than in men.

(1)Causes

1) Muscle strain injury. Looking down at the phone and computer for a long time can cause damage to the neck muscles, as can reading a book in bed and looking at the phone with an incorrect posture.
2)Bad posture. Incorrect posture of reading cell phones and books in bed, long time looking down at the computer or computer placed at an inappropriate height, incorrect sleeping posture, twisting the neck incorrectly when exercising, lifting things in the wrong posture and other such daily activities can cause some degree of muscle damage, muscle spasm and other problems.
3) Trauma caused by accidents or falls. The most likely to occur in an accident is a whipping injury, a symptom that makes it difficult to move the head for a few days and can cause minor muscle damage, but will soon disappear.
4) Joint wear and tear. Neck joints, like other joints, can wear and degenerate with age, with cervical arthritis and spinal stenosis, etc. Slowly, disc herniation and nerve compression can also occur, which can cause neck pain.
5) High mental stress and physical tension. Due to tension will appear muscle stiffness phenomenon to when the neck pain.

(2)Symtoms

1) Pain and stiffness. Sitting and sleeping in one position for a long time, then feeling pain and muscle tightness when moving the neck.
2)Muscle spasm. This usually occurs on one side and it is difficult to move the head, but usually chances disappear in a short time. It may be a few hours or a few days.
3)Numbness and tingling. When the peripheral nerves in the neck are compressed, numbness and tingling sensations are felt, usually concentrated in the lower neck, and this sensory advantage spreads from the arms to the fingers.
4) Dizziness and lightheadedness. This condition is mainly due to the compression of the finger arteries or changes in the vertebrae, which reduce blood flow and cause dizziness and fainting.

(3)Types

1) Neuropathic neck pain: mainly caused by cervical disc herniation, it is radicular pain, pain is the most important symptom of neurogenic cervical spine, its nature becomes drill pain and knife-like pain, it can also be persistent hidden pain or soreness, it can also radiate to different parts, such as head, behind the ear, behind the eye sockets, shoulder, arm, forehead and even fingers, mostly limited to one side, when coughing, sneezing or upper limb extension and neck When coughing, sneezing or stretching of upper limbs and neck overflexion or overextension, it can be triggered or intensified. Some patients often have numbness in the fingertips of the affected side, and the symptoms are aggravated at night, often affecting sleep.
2) Mechanical neck pain: It is the most common type of neck pain. It is mainly caused by poor posture and strain on the neck muscles during work activities.
3) Central neck pain: It is mainly caused by stroke and spinal cord injury, but may also be caused by central nervous system injury or spinal cord trauma infection.

(4)Diagnosis method

1) History and physical examination: the doctor asks the patient's age, history of the disease, whether he/she has been injured, pain, lifestyle habits and family history, and then determines the location of the disease by observing the neck for abnormalities and palpation.
2) X-rays: X-rays can show the bones of the neck, determine the degeneration of the spine, and determine the area of compression of the nerves in the neck, etc.
3)MRI and CT scan: It can identify soft tissue and skeletal changes.
4)Diagnostic injections: Anesthetic is injected into specific structures and if the pain is relieved, the associated joint or nerve root may be the source of the pain.
5)Electrodiagnostic tests: EMG and NCS.

(5)What's the time to call a doctor

1)The pain symptoms did not improve after a week.
2)The pain is getting worse.
3)Pain in the neck after a car accident or a fall.
4)Loss of control of bowel movement and urination.
5)Numbness, weakness and tingling in the arms.
6) Unexplained fever.
7) Difficulty swallowing and breathing with neck pain.

(6)Treatment method

1) exercise therapy: pay attention to rest while carrying out appropriate exercise, you can slightly turn the neck
2) Physical therapy: cold compresses can relieve pain and stiffness, hot compresses can relax the muscles; electrotherapy, mainly using a device to deliver a mild electric current to the pain area through a wire, the most common is TENS. Ultrasounds can relieve pain by relaxing the muscles.
3) Medication: use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs
4) Alternative therapies: massage to relax muscles and reduce muscle spasm and tightness; acupuncture, and possibly needles in the neck or other parts of the body to speed healing; positive meditation
5)Therapeutic injections: radiofrequency ablation (RFA) mainly for small joints is the source of pain and relief lasts a long time; cervical epidural steroid injections mainly for herniated discs and spinal degeneration.
6) Surgical therapy: the purpose of surgery is to decompress and stabilize, mainly discectomy to remove damaged discs (such as anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc replacement), vertebral body resection, transbody micro decompression, etc.

(7)Preventive measures

1) The neck should not always maintain the same position at the same height, the computer is placed at the right height.
2) Ensure sufficient sleep, so that the height of the neck and other parts of the body as much as possible to maintain the same.
3)Do some stretching exercises, twist your neck and turn your neck.

4.Sacrum and Coccyx Pain

Among musculoskeletal low back pain, pain caused by tailbone pain and sacroiliac pain accounts for a relatively large proportion of the pain, producing 60-85% of the while effects in human physicians' ailments. Tailbone pain is usually not permanent and will go away on its own within a short period of time. Most of the causes of tailbone pain are due to trauma, and those caused by cancer are extremely rare.

(1)Causes

1) Trauma or injury. A fall or trauma can cause inflammation or fracture of the tailbone ligaments, resulting in tailbone pain
2) Repetitive stress. Regular cycling and horseback riding require the body to lean back and forth, putting pressure on the tailbone for a long time and causing repetitive strain; in addition, sitting on a hard surface for a long time can strain the muscles near the tailbone, and these causes of tailbone pain are short-term and will not be accompanied by a lifetime.
3) Pregnancy. Pregnancy and childbirth may overstretch the muscles and ligaments near the tailbone, resulting in tailbone pain.
4) Obesity. Overweight people can put extra pressure on the pelvis, increasing the chances of tailbone pain.

(2)Symtoms

1) Localized soreness of the tailbone. This symptom may persist, intermittently with its own movement.
2) Increased pain when sitting on a hard surface.
3) Severe pain when changing from sitting to standing position.
4) Difficulty with bowel movements or sexual intercourse.

(3)Diagnosis method

1) History and physical examination. The doctor asks about the history of the injury, the site of pain, and problems with sitting and standing, and asks to move in different positions to determine the location of the pain.
2) Imaging examinations: X-ray, CT scan latter MRI to determine whether the spine is abnormal, whether there is a fracture of the tailbone, etc.

(4)Treatment method

1) Drug therapy: oral anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or painkillers (ibuprofen, etc.) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation, you can also apply creams.
2) Hot or cold compresses: cold compresses are applied to the affected area several times a day to reduce inflammation, and hot compresses are applied to relieve muscle tension
3) Massage: relieve muscle pain through massage. Promote blood flow
4) Surgical treatment: remove the tailbone

(5)Preventive measures

1) Maintain a good sitting posture. Avoid hunching over when sitting for long periods of time, and it is best to have a support pillow for your lower back.
2)Healthy diet. Eat more food rich in high fiber and drink more water.
3) Regular exercise. Walking, jogging and yoga and other appropriate exercises help to strengthen the spine.

5.Spine

Spinal pain in the lumbar region (lower back) and cervical region (neck) is very common and is often the cause of many missed work days. The thoracic spine can also be a site of spinal pain, but because it is more rigid, injuries are much less frequent in the thoracic region than in the lumbar and cervical spine. According to statistics, the global market size for spinal osteoarthritis pain medications is expected to reach millions by 2028, compared to 2021.

(1)Symtoms

1)Stiffness of the lower back and reduced movement
2)Longer duration of pain
3)Muscle spasm when resting and moving for a long time
4)Inability to maintain a normal posture

(2)Diagnosis method

1) X-ray: shows the structure and joint contours of the vertebrae and finds the specific cause of the pain.
2)MRI or CT scan: The imaging technique shows the spinal cord, nerve roots and nearby areas, which can show the bone details and detect the inflammatory process.
3)EMG: It can localize to the area of compression.

(3)Treatment method

1) Medication: topical NSAIDs for minor pain, and if the pain is severe, muscle relaxants and narcotics can be added or replaced as appropriate
2) Physical therapy: hot or cold compresses, massage, ultrasound, electrical muscle stimulation and stretching exercises
3) Surgical treatment: disc replacement, discectomy, spinal fusion surgery, etc.

(4)Preventive measures

1) Exercise regularly. Do sit-ups, abdominal training, swimming and other fixed exercises to increase the strength of the spine.
2)Maintain correct posture to avoid compression of spinal deformation.
3)Maintain a good mood and avoid excessive muscle tension.
4)Maintain a healthy weight and healthy diet.

According to the induced location of pain

1. Muscle: such as caused by muscle strain, spasm, etc.

Muscle soreness is very common, mostly caused by overuse of muscles and ligaments such as improper exercise, and may be felt as constant pain or severe pain. The location of the pain is different for each person, and the pain experience is also different. And some are generalized muscle pain, while others have localized pain.

(1)Causes

1) Muscle injury or overexertion: strenuous or sudden exercise, increased exercise intensity, etc. can cause muscle strain and muscle soreness
2)Muscle bruising: bruising around the skin tissue similar to the striking muscle, swelling around it, causing muscle pain
3)Autoimmune diseases: for example, fibromyalgia is a chronic disease that makes you feel physically fatigued and causes pain, soreness, and stiffness
4)Systemic lupus erythematosus affects all parts of the body, and patients often experience muscle aches and pains.
5)Inflammatory myopathy is a disease of the skeletal muscles, and muscle weakness often occurs.
6) Metabolic defects: Hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism), for example, usually causes muscle pain and spasms. Hyperthyroidism can cause muscle spasms. Muscle pain caused by adrenal insufficiency is usually concentrated in the legs and lower back
7) Drug side effects: Cancer treatment, topical application of a series of cholesterol-lowering, antidepressant, etc. Drugs have some side effects, but muscle pain will gradually disappear after a period of discontinuation.
8)Infection: Sometimes bacterial and viral infections are one of the causes.
9) Other. For example, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia are closely related to the phenomenon of myalgia; patients with osteochondrosis will have muscle spasms

(2)Symtoms

1) Sharp burning sensation: pain caused by muscle strain is usually sharp and burning, sometimes accompanied by swelling and bruising
2) muscle spasm: muscle pain caused by hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and osteochondrosis is usually due to muscle spasm
3) pressure pain: patients with inflammatory diseases usually feel pressure pain when touching the muscle
4)Soreness and weakness: SLE and medication side effects can cause muscle soreness.

(3)Diagnosis method

1) Medical history and physical examination. The doctor will ask about the location and duration of pain, daily activities, and other symptoms to narrow down the cause of pain, and will also check for swelling and redness of the skin in the painful area.
2) Blood test. This is mainly to check for the presence of bacterial infection or autoimmune disease.
3) CT scans and MRI mainly check for muscle abnormalities such as tears, injuries sprains and bleeding.
4)Bone scan: This mainly checks for bone growth and determines whether it is bone related.

(4)What's the time to call a doctor

In addition to the presence of muscle pain, difficulty in breathing or swallowing, chest tightness, fever, muscle weakness, severe muscle pain, and uncontrolled bowel movements require immediate medical attention.

(5)Treatment method

1)Medication: topical application of ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, muscle relaxants, antibiotics, steroid drugs, etc. can relieve pain
2)Cold or hot compresses: can relieve muscle soreness and promote muscle blood flow, but time and temperature should be controlled.
3) Massage and proper exercise. Stretching and some gentle exercises can relax the muscles and increase blood flow.
4) Rest and elevate the painful area.
5) Meditation. Meditation can relax the muscles, reduce muscle tension and relieve pain.

(6)Preventive measures

1) Warm up well before exercise to avoid muscle strains.
2)Running should be done on a rubber track or soft surface, not on hard ground.
3) Non-professionals should not engage in high-intensity exercise.

2. Nerve: such as sciatica, spinal nerve compression, inflammation and/or injury, etc.

Neuralgia is most likely to occur when there are abnormalities in the central nervous system or in the nerves that spread from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and organs. Neuralgia is a very specific type of pain that most of the time cannot be relieved by traditional pain medication and sometimes requires specific pain medication. Neuralgia is caused by damage to the nerves and can affect the quality of our sleep, mood and some daily activities. The global peripheral nerve injury market size was $1.33 billion in 2021 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.65% from 2022 to 2030. The growth of the industry can be attributed to the aging population and the incidence of PNI in the growing population. Increased government initiatives and reimbursement policies are expected to further drive industry growth over the forecast period. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the industry as sales of medical devices such as nerve regeneration catheters have decreased compared to the previous year due to the delay in non-essential surgeries caused by the spread of COVID-19.

(1)Causes

1) Autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory diseases can damage the nerves and trigger neuralgia.
2) Cancer. In some cases, cancerous masses can compress nerves, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also harm nerves.
3) Lack of nutrition. Lack of vitamins B6 and B12 may also cause nerve pain, and this nutritional deficiency may occur because of heavy alcohol consumption or after certain surgeries.
4) Drug side effects. For example, cancer chemotherapy drugs and HIV treatment drugs can also cause nerve damage.
5) Heavy alcohol consumption. Heavy alcohol consumption can cause nerve damage by ingesting toxic substances such as lead and mercury, and may also lead to deficiencies in vitamins B6 and B12, which are nutrients that cause nerve damage.
6) Injuries to the brain, spine and nerves can also lead to nerve pain.

(2)Symtoms

There is usually a tingling and burning sensation, and people with neuralgia are more sensitive to temperature as well as to painful stimuli; there may be convulsions and muscle spasms; low blood pressure, which can cause fainting in severe cases; loss of bowel and bladder control; and sometimes muscle weakness, excessive or insufficient sweating, along with reduced motor ability.

(3)Diagnosis method

1) Medical history and physical examination. The doctor asks about the pain site, pain Chengdu, pain duration, etc. He will also check the responsiveness and muscle strength, etc. He can find the cause of the pain and the treatment as soon as possible.
2) Blood test. It is mainly to check whether there is diabetes and some vitamin substance deficiency.
3) Nerve conduction studies and EMG, mainly to see if there are any abnormalities in the muscles and nerves.
4) CT scans and MRI are mainly to check if there is something pressing on the nerve causing the nerve pain.

(4)Treatment method

1) Medication: Mild neuralgia can be relieved with some common painkillers, and sometimes strong painkillers such as opioids are needed for control, but these drugs have side effects and should not be used for a long time. Ointment can also be applied to the painful area.
2) Nerve blocks: Steroids, local anesthetics, etc. are injected into the affected nerve to relieve pain.
3) Complementary and alternative therapies: acupuncture, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, spinal cord stimulation
4) Surgery: If the nerve pain is caused by compression of the nerve or nerve injury, surgery may be required.

(5)Preventive measures

1) Healthy diet. Eat more foods rich in protein, high fiber and vitamins, such as fruits, vegetables, chicken, fish, eggs, etc.
2) Regular and appropriate exercise. Do not do high-intensity strenuous exercise, you can do aerobic exercise and low-impact exercise.
3) Quit smoking and alcohol to avoid excessive intake of toxic substances that damage the nerves.

3.Bone: such as osteoporosis, lumbar disc herniation, etc.

Bone pain is not common and is mainly caused by bone diseases, such as cancer or fractures. Bone pain is currently treated with disease modifiers or painkillers depending on the condition. According to statistics, the global joint replacement market will be $17.1 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.4% from 2021 to 2028. Increasing prevalence of orthopedic diseases, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis (OA), and lower extremity conditions are some of the factors driving the joint replacement market. The Arthritis Foundation estimates that by 2040, more than 78 million people in the U.S. aged 18 years or older will be diagnosed with arthritis. Thus, the increasing prevalence of these chronic conditions leads to high demand for surgical interventions, which in turn drives the growth of the joint replacement market.

(1)Causes

1) Bone contusion fracture: Fracture caused by trauma during a car accident or sports fall; osteoporosis often occurs in the elderly, and as we age, bone density and strength decline, leading to painful fractures, often in the hip, spine and wrist.
2) Cancer. Bone cancer causes swelling around the bones, reduces weight, and can even weaken the bones, making them more likely to break and fracture.
3) Blood disorders. For example, leukemia does not have enough healthy red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the body, which can lead to bone damage and bone disease.
4) Infections. For example, in osteomyelitis, when an infection in another part of the body spreads to the bones, bacteria can take over the bones and cause bone disease.
5) Pregnancy. Women have a high probability of pelvic pain during pregnancy.

(2)Symtoms

Symptoms of bone contusion injuries are mainly fractures, pain, and swelling of skin tissue; osteoporosis produces back pain and difficulty bending over; cancer-induced pain is mainly headache, chest pain, and seizures. Joint pain is sometimes accompanied by bone pain, with pain in the joints of the ankle, knee or elbow; bone pain caused by infection is mainly redness and heat in the infected area, and patients with leukemia also experience weight loss and easy fatigue.

(3)Diagnosis method

1) Medical history and physical examination. The doctor will ask about the location of the pain, the duration of the pain, whether there has been trauma, and then determine the redness, swelling and fever by palpating the location of the pain, and also check the surrounding muscles and joints.
2) Blood tests. It mainly includes complete blood count, basal metabolome, one or more tumor markers (for example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), etc.), mainly to look for abnormal proteins and diagnose bone cancer.
3) Biopsy. Biopsy is performed on bones. To determine the type of bone cancer. Mainly core needle biopsy and open biopsy, the former is to insert a fine needle into the body under anesthesia to remove the tissue, and the latter is to remove an affected piece of bone from the body for testing.
4) Imaging test. CT scans and MRI mainly check the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread.

(4)Treatment method

1)Pharmacological treatment: pain relievers such as NSAIDs and opioids, bisphosphonates relieve pain by blocking bone resorption, mainly for patients with osteoporosis, antibiotic drugs mainly for the infected population, vitamin supplementation
(2) chemotherapy and radiation therapy: mainly for cancer patients and leukemia patients.
(3) physical therapy: hot and cold compresses, massage or ultrasound can strengthen the surrounding muscle fever flexibility and mobility, can improve suffering from osteoporosis or osteochondrosis.
(4) Surgery: repair fractures, remove damaged bone tissue, and weaken skeletal disorders.

(5)Preventive measures

1) Eat a healthy diet with plenty of foods containing calcium and vitamins to ensure a daily intake.
2)Exercise regularly with aerobic exercise to strengthen bones and improve muscle activity.
3)Quit smoking and alcohol to control the intake of toxic substances that are harmful to bones.
4)Ensure sufficient sleep, relax and don't get too stressed out.

4.Joints: such as sacroiliac arthritis, etc.

Joint pain is now relatively common and usually occurs in the hands, feet, hips, knees or spine. The most common cause of joint pain is arthritis As we age, the risk of developing arthritis increases. According to the Bureau of Statistics, about 25 percent of adults in the United States have arthritis, and women are more likely to develop arthritis than men, and the prevalence is higher in poorer health. Over the next two decades, the prevalence is on the rise. By 2040, approximately 78 million adults will have arthritis, an increase of 23.81% compared to 2020, and two-thirds of those affected are expected to be women.

(1)Causes

1) Strain and sprain after strenuous exercise or repetitive motion.
2)Osteoarthritis is caused by high intensity exercise, obesity, injury and overuse.
3) Bursitis in the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee.
4) Rheumatoid arthritis, which causes inflammation of the joints and tissues surrounding the joints.
5)Gout that occurs in the joints of the toes.
6)Joint infection caused by septic arthritis

(2)Symtoms

Symptoms vary depending on the cause. Joint pain caused by strains and sprains mainly manifests as swelling and pain and bruising; osteoarthritis causes increased pain and stiffness when walking; bursitis causes swollen joints and pain when pressed; rheumatoid arthritis causes severe pain when waking up in the morning; gout and joint infections cause heat and swelling in the painful area.

(4)Diagnosis method

Again, the examination is based on history and physical examination, followed by blood tests, bone scans, X-rays, MRI and CT scans

(5)What's the time to call a doctor

It is necessary to see a doctor when new regional pain develops, joint pain does not resolve for several weeks, there is an unexplained fever, weight loss, and the joint pain has interfered with daily life and sleep.

(6)Treatment method

1) Medication: Pain medication for pain relief, corticosteroids for swelling and inflammation. In case of joint infection, antibiotics are recommended.
2) Appropriate exercise. Stretching and gentle exercises can increase joint flexibility, such as swimming, tai chi, cycling, etc.
3) Hot or cold compresses can relieve the discomfort caused by joint pain.
4) Massage. Gentle therapeutic massage can relieve joint pain.
5)Physiotherapy: Braces, walkers, etc. reduce joint pain and strengthen the activity of the muscles near the joints.
6)Surgery: Usually used for advanced arthritis cases, mainly osteotomy and total joint replacement, the former is used to cut and reshape the bones and is suitable for young people.

(7)Preventive measures

This can be achieved by maintaining a healthy weight, stretching your muscles before and after exercise, and using proper posture during exercise

5.Spine: such as spinal curvature, spondylitis, etc.

(1)Causes

(2)Symtoms

(3)Types

(4)Diagnosis method

(5)What's the time to call a doctor

(6)Treatment method

(7)Preventive measures

6.internal organs: such as kidney stones, endometriosis, tumors and other causes of traction pain.

Visceral pain mainly originates from inflammation of the internal organs such as the uterus, stomach, rectum, and bladder. Most of this inflammation is due to infection, trauma or any injury to the external or internal parts of the internal organs. The degree of visceral pain varies from severe and constant to very deep pain, such as pain squeezing out of the body. The visceral pain market size reached $11.61 billion by 2020. Total revenue is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.2% from 2021 to 2027 to reach nearly $16.56 billion.

(1)Causes

Inflammation, female menstrual flow, organ swelling, decreased blood flow, tumors of the pelvis and abdomen, cancer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), pancreatitis

(2)Symtoms

1)Chest tightness, a feeling of pressure and squeezing, usually lasting several minutes, concentrated in the center of the chest
2)Nausea and vomiting, sweating and rapid heartbeat
3)Unbearable deep pain and cramps, usually spreading throughout the body

(3)Diagnosis method

A history and physical examination, examination of the painful area and palpation (careful pressure) to feel for lumps, warmth, tenderness or stiffness, and possibly imaging, such as x-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans or ultrasound of the painful area and nearby areas of concern

(4)Treatment method

1) Drugs: Taking Tylenol and opioids can relieve pain, but they should not be used for a long time and have side effects.
2)Pain injections: For persistent visceral pain, injections of pain medication near the painful area or near the nerve that transmits the pain can be considered.
3)Medical or surgical intervention: Some causes of abdominal visceral pain such as ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm or appendicitis can be life-threatening and require emergency surgery. Abdominal pain may also be triggered by infection or cancer, both of which require prompt diagnosis and specially tailored treatment.
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